The electron is the smallest known particle in the universe, a force that is constantly changing the state of matter and energy around it.

In a nutshell, an electron has two fundamental properties: an electromagnetic charge and an electrical charge.

Electrons are composed of a positively charged nucleus and an electron cloud.

Electromagnetic charges are the way in which light can interact with matter and the way that the electron interacts with matter.

Electron clouds are the electromagnetic properties of matter that are reflected off of atoms and electrons.

A single electron in a nucleus can emit and reflect light as light, which is why electrons can be seen in the infrared and visible light spectrum.

Electrically, electrons have the same properties as the positron and muon, but instead of a charge, they have an electrical force, called an electric potential.

The electric potential of an electron is a measure of the amount of energy it can hold at any given time.

An electric potential is usually measured by a gauge, such as a gauge wire, and has two parameters, the voltage and the current.

Electronegativity The electron has an electric charge equal to the square of its electric potential (e.g., x = 0.7) and an electric field equal to x + 2(x).

In addition to its electric field, electrons also have a negative electric charge and a negative magnetic field.

Electrostatic force, the force of an object to resist the force acting on it.

Electrophysicists estimate the electrical and magnetic force of the electron using measurements of electric and magnetic fields.

These two fields cancel each other out, so the electric and the magnetic fields cancel out the electric potential as well.

Electrodynamics Electrodynamic mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with how a moving object interacts with the environment around it, using information from the surrounding environment to control its motions.

In the case of the electromagnetic field, it is the electric field that acts on electrons, and the other fields act on the nucleus.

When an electron interacts, its electric charge is changed in one of the two ways described above.

Electrocorticature Electrocollativity refers to the electrical charge of an electric current.

Electrostatic attraction The electric charge of a body that is attracted to another body by an electric force.

Electropulsion, which occurs when an electric wire is pulled towards a body, is an example of a type of electric attraction.

The magnetic field of a charged body is changed when an object is pushed into a magnetic field, and an object’s position is changed by a magnetic force.

Electric field A force that affects the direction of an electrical field, such that a charged object’s electric field is oriented towards the charged object.

The charge of the charged body acts on the charged field, making the charged mass repel the charged surface.

Electrospray, the same type of force used in radio astronomy.

Electriquance The electric field produced by an electron, the electric charge being equal to a square of the electric voltage.

Electrowaves, a type that produce sound waves by electrical interaction with an electromagnetic field.

Energy The amount of electric energy that an object exerts on a charged surface, measured in the form of a magnetic moment or an electric capacitance.

Electrologist, an expert in electrical engineering and a scientist who studies how energy flows in matter and how it can be harnessed for applications.

Emission spectrum The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, consisting of the wavelengths that can be observed with a particular type of instrument.

Electrotron, an experimental particle that produces a positron when it is electrically excited, and then neutron when it has an electron.

Empirical measurement The measurement of an effect on an electric or magnetic field by a method known as electrostatic or electrochemical analysis.

Experimental measurement, the act of comparing measurements made by different instruments in different ways.

Enigma code, a combination of symbols used in the mathematics of cryptography to help crack the code.

Enum, a unit of measurement.

Envirothermal systems, those in which the electrical or magnetic fields are not directly in contact with the body, but are in contact only through other electromagnetic fields.

The term is used to describe systems that are not physically active, such under the influence of a non-active medium.

Enthalpy, a measure that measures the electric or electromagnetic properties.

Energetic density, the density of an electromagnetic energy that has an energy, called its electric energy, divided by the energy of an electrostatic field, which describes the difference between the two energies.

Electrogen, an energy that is equal to one part in 100,000 of an atom’s mass.

Electrogens are typically created when two hydrogen atoms are excited together, creating a magnetic dipole and then combining the two atoms to create a neutron.

Electrogravitation, a method of measuring the magnetic and electric fields of an objects surface, using electrical or mechanical measurements. E